Load Frequency Control of HVDC Link Interconnected Power System Using Genetic Algorithm
Advances in power electronics have improved grid support functions such as tie-line power control and frequency control, making renewable generation and High Voltage DC (HVDC) links more common in power system applications. Load Frequency Control (LFC) systems handle the complex interactions between the distributed generator and the control area with the HVDC link. In this work, LFC of a two-zone system including parallel AC/DC transmission links has been analysed. The parameters of this system are optimised using advanced genetic algorithm resulting in improved performance of system in terms of reduction in peak overshoots and settling time of frequency measurement, tie line power flow and area control error signals in an interconnected power system. The advantage of having parallel HVDC links is also demonstrated when performance is compared to system interconnected with only AC tie line.
Bevrani, H. and Hiyama, T. 2014. Intelligent automatic generation control. 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, United States.
Al-Haiki, Z. E. and Shaikh-Nasser, A. N. 2001. Power transmission to distant offshore facilities. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 47, 3, pp. 1180–1183.
Giddani, O. A., Abbas, A. Y. M., Adam, G. P., Anaya-Lara, O., and Lo, K. L. 2013. Multi-task control for VSC–HVDC power and frequency control. Electric Power Energy Syst 53 ,pp. 684–690.
Kundur, P. 1994. Power system stability and control. McGraw-Hill, New York, United States.
Rakhshani, E. and Rodriguez, P. 2014. Active power and frequency control considering large scale RES. In Large scale renewable power generation. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 233–271. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-4585-30-9_9
Arya, Y. and Kumar, N. 2016. AGC of a multi-area multi-source hydrothermal power system interconnected via AC/DC parallel links under deregulated environment. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 75, pp. 127–138.
Donde, V., Pai, A., and Hiskens, I. A. 2001. Simulation and optimization in an AGC system after deregulation. IEEE Trans Power Syst 16, 3, pp. 481–489.
Datta, M., Senjyu, T., Yona, A., Funabashi, T., and Chul-Hwan, K. 2011. A frequency-control approach by photovoltaic generator in a PV–diesel hybrid power system. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 26, pp. 559–571.
Pourmousavi, S. A. and Nehrir, M. H. 2014. Introducing dynamic demand response in the LFC model. IEEE Trans Power Syst 29, 4, pp. 1562–1572.
Shashi, K. P., Soumya, R. M., and Nand, K. 2013. A literature survey on load frequency control for conventional and distribution generation power systems. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 25, pp. 318–334.
Rakhshani E., Remon, D., and Rodriguez, P. 2016. Effects of PLL and frequency measurements on LFC problem in multi-area HVDC interconnected systems. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 81, October 2016, pp. 140–152.
Wolff, G. 2010. Supergrid costs and benefits, DESERTEC-UK. http://www.trecuk.org.uk/ resources/supergrid_costs1.pdf
Sahin, S., Saffet, A., and Chika, O. N. 2015. An exact method for computing delay margin for stability of load frequency control systems with constant communication delays. IEEE Trans Power Syst 31, 1, pp. 370–377.
Peng, C. and Zhang, J. 2015. Delay-distribution-dependent load frequency control of power systems with probabilistic interval delays. IEEE Trans Power Syst 31, 4, pp. 3309–3317.
Du, Z. B., Zhang, Y., Liu, L., Guan, X. H., Ni, Y. X., and Wu, F. F. 2007. Structure-preserved power frequency slow dynamics simulation of interconnected ac/dc power systems with AGC consideration. IET Gener Transm Distrib 1, 6, pp. 920–927.
Ganapathy, S. and Velusami, S. 2010. MOEA based design of decentralized controllers for LFC of interconnected power systems with nonlinearities, AC–DC parallel tie lines and SMES units. Energy Convers Manage 51, pp. 873–880.
Du, Z., Zhang, Y., Chen, Z., Li, P., Ni, Y., and Shi, L. 2012. Integrated emergency frequency control method for interconnected AC/DC power systems using centre of inertia signals. IET Gener Transm Distrib 6, 6, pp. 584–592.
Selvakumarana, S., Parthasarathy, S., Karthigaivel, R., and Rajasekaran, V. 2012. Optimal decentralized load frequency control in a parallel AC–DC interconnected power system through HVDC link using PSO algorithm. Energy Procedia 14, pp. 1849–1854.
Copyright (c) 2019 MENDEL
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
MENDEL open access articles are normally published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ . Under the CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license permitted 3rd party reuse is only applicable for non-commercial purposes. Articles posted under the CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license allow users to share, copy, and redistribute the material in any medium of format, and adapt, remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose. Reusing under the CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license requires that appropriate attribution to the source of the material must be included along with a link to the license, with any changes made to the original material indicated.